PENTINGNYA BERDAKWAH DALAM ISLAM

Salah satu kewajiban umat Muslim adalah berdakwah. Sebagian  ulama ada yang menyebut berdakwah itu hukumnya fardu kifayah (kewajiban kolektif), sebagian lainnya menyatakan fardu ain. Meski begitu, Rasulullah SAW tetap selalu mengajarkan agar seorang Muslim selalu menyeru pada jalan kebaikan dengan cara-cara yang baik.

Dakwah berarti kegiatan yang bersifat menyeru, mengajak dan memanggil orang lain untuk beriman dan taat kepada Allah SWT, sesuai dengan garis akidah, syariat dan akhlak Islam. Secara bahasa, dakwah merupakan masdar (kata benda) dari kata kerja da’a yad’u yang artinya “panggilan”, “seruan” atau “ajakan”. Jadi berdakwah adalah aktivitas menyeru manusia kepada Allah SWT dengan hikmah dan pelajaran yang baik dengan harapan agar objek dakwah yang kita dakwahi beriman kepada Allah SWT dan mengingkari thagut (semua yang di abdi selain Allah) sehingga mereka keluar dari kegelapan jahiliyah menuju cahaya Islam.

Selain itu, Kata dakwah sering dirangkaikan dengan kata “Ilmu” dan kata “Islam”, sehingga menjadi “Ilmu dakwah” dan Ilmu Islam” atau ad-dakwah al-Islamiyah. Orang yang berdakwah disebut dai (juru dakwah), sedangkan obyek dakwah disebut mad’u. Setiap dakwah hendaknya bertujuan untuk mewujudkan kebahagiaan dan kesejahteraan hidup di dunia dan di akhirat yang diridai oleh Allah. Nabi Muhammad SAW mencontohkan dakwah kepada umatnya dengan berbagai cara melalui lisan, tulisan dan perbuatan.

Rasulullah SAW memulai dakwahnya dari istri, keluarga, dan teman-teman karibnya hingga raja-raja yang berkuasa pada saat itu. Di antara raja-raja yang mendapat surat atau risalah Nabi SAW adalah kaisar Heraklius dari Byzantium, Mukaukis dari Mesir, Kisra dari Persia (Iran) dan Raja Najasyi dari Habasyah (Ethiopia). Sehingga ada beberapa metode dakwah yang bisa dilakukan seorang Muslim menurut syariat.

Pertama, dakwah fardiah yakni metode dakwah yang dilakukan seseorang kepada orang lain (satu orang) atau kepada beberapa orang dalam jumlah yang kecil dan terbatas. Kedua, dakwah ammah yakni jenis dakwah yang dilakukan oleh seseorang dengan media lisan yang ditujukan kepada orang banyak dengan maksud menanamkan pengaruh kepada mereka. Media yang dipakai biasanya berbentuk khutbah (pidato). Selain itu juga dikenal istilah dakwah bil-Lisan yakni penyampaian informasi atau pesan dakwah melalui lisan (ceramah atau komunikasi langsung antara subyek dan obyek dakwah). Ditambah, Rasulullah SAW juga mengajarkan umatnya untuk dakwah bil-haal yakni dakwah yang mengedepankan perbuatan nyata. Hal ini dimaksudkan agar si penerima dakwah (mad’u) mengikuti sang dai. Berdakwah dengan perbuatan memiliki pengaruh yang besar pada mad’u. Di era multimedia ini, umat Muslim pun bisa berdakwah bit-tadwin (melalui tulisan), baik dengan menulis di koran, internet, majalah, buletin atau melalui buku. Rasulullah SAW juga mengingatkan agar dakwah dilakukan dengan cara yang arif dan bijaksana.

Jika kita melihat ayat-ayat Al-Quran maupun hadits-hadits Rasulullah saw, kita akan banyak menemukan fadhail (keutamaan) dakwah yang luar biasa. Dengan mengetahui, memahami, dan menghayati keutamaan dakwah ini seorang muslim akan termotivasi secara kuat untuk melakukan dakwah dan bergabung bersama kafilah dakwah di manapun ia berada. Mengetahui keutamaan dakwah termasuk faktor terpenting yang mempengaruhi konsistensi seorang muslim dalam berdakwah dan menjaga semangat dakwah, karena keyakinan terhadap keutamaan dakwah dapat menjadikannya merasa ringan menghadapi beban dan rintangan dakwah betapapun beratnya. Beberapa keutamannya adalah sebagai berikut :

Dakwah adalah Muhimmatur Rusul (Tugas Utama Para Rasul alaihimussalam)

Dakwah adalah Ahsanul A’mal (Amal yang Terbaik)

Dakwah memiliki keutamaan yang besar karena para da’i akan memperoleh balasan yang besar dan berlipat ganda (al-hushulu ‘ala al-ajri al-‘azhim)

Dakwah dapat menyelamatkan kita dari azab Allah swt (An-Najatu minal ‘Azab)

Dakwah adalah Jalan Menuju Khairu Ummah

Adapun dalil-dalil yang menjelaskan pentingnya berdakwah maupun keutamaanya adalah sebagai berikut :

1.      Perintah berdakwah dalam Al Quran

a)      Allah Ta’ala berfirman,

“Katakanlah, ‘Inilah jalan (agama) ku, aku dan orang-orang yang mengikutiku mengajak (kalian) kepada Allah di atas ilmu (hujjah yang nyata). Maha Suci Allah, dan aku tiada termasuk orang-orang yang musyrik’.” [Yuusuf:108]

b)      Allah berfirman,

“Serulah (manusia) kepada jalan Tuhanmu dengan hikmah dan pelajaran yang baik dan bantahlah mereka dengan cara yang baik. Sesungguhnya Tuhanmu Dialah yang lebih mengetahui tentang siapa yang tersesat dari jalan-Nya dan Dialah yang lebih mengetahui orang-orang yang mendapat petunjuk.” [An-Nahl:125]

c)      Allah berfirman,

“Dan janganlah sekali-kali mereka dapat menghalangimu dari (menyampaikan) ayat-ayat Allah, sesudah ayat-ayat itu diturunkan kepadamu, dan serulah mereka kepada (jalan) Tuhanmu, dan janganlah sekali-kali kamu termasuk orang-orang yang mempersekutukan Allah.” [Al-Qashash:87]

d)     Allah berfirman,

“Dan siapakah yang lebih baik perkataannya daripada orang yang menyeru kepada Allah, mengerjakan amal yang saleh dan berkata, ‘Sesungguhnya aku termasuk orang-orang yang berserah diri?’.” [Fushshilat:33]

e)       Allah berfirman,

“Dan orang-orang yang telah Kami berikan kitab kepada mereka bergembira dengan kitab yang diturunkan kepadamu, dan di antara golongan-golongan (Yahudi dan Nashrani) yang bersekutu, ada yang mengingkari sebahagiannya. Katakanlah, ‘Sesungguhnya aku hanya diperintah untuk beribadah kepada Allah dan tidak mempersekutukan sesuatu pun dengan Dia. Hanya kepada-Nya aku seru (manusia) dan hanya kepada-Nya aku kembali’.” [Ar-Ra’d:36]

f)       Allah berfirman,

“Bagi tiap-tiap umat telah Kami tetapkan syari’at tertentu yang mereka lakukan, maka janganlah sekali-kali mereka membantah kamu dalam urusan (syari’at) ini dan serulah kepada (agama) Tuhanmu. Sesungguhnya kamu benar-benar berada pada jalan yang lurus.” [Al-Hajj:67]

g)      Allah berfirman,

“Hai Nabi sesungguhnya kami mengutusmu untuk jadi saksi, dan pembawa kabar gembira serta pemberi peringatan, dan untuk jadi penyeru kepada Agama Allah dengan izin-Nya dan untuk jadi cahaya yang menerangi.” [Al-Ahzaab:45-46]

2.      Perintah berdakwah dalam As Sunnah

1. Dari Abu Mas’ud ‘Uqbah bin ‘Amr Al-Anshariy Al-Badriy radhiyallahu ‘anhu dia berkata, Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda,

“Barangsiapa yang menunjukkan kepada suatu kebaikan maka dia akan mendapat pahala seperti pahala orang yang melakukannya.” (HR. Muslim no.1893)

2. Dari Abu Hurairah radhiyallahu ‘anhu bahwasanya Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda,

“Barangsiapa yang menyeru/mengajak (orang lain) kepada petunjuk maka dia akan mendapatkan pahala seperti pahala-pahala dari orang-orang yang mengikutinya, yang hal itu tidak mengurangi pahala-pahala mereka sedikit pun, dan barangsiapa yang mengajak kepada kesesatan maka dia akan mendapat dosa seperti dosa-dosa dari orang-orang yang mengikutinya, yang hal itu tidak mengurangi dosa-dosa mereka sedikit pun.” (HR. Muslim no.2674)

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  • terima kasih atas artikelnya…
    sangat bermanfaat sekali utk mengingatkan kita pada tugas kita sbg seorang muslim…

    intinya, sebelum berdakwah, kita harus memiliki pengetahuan iman Islam yg cukup misalnya memahami ilmu2 Al-Qur’an, ilmu2 Hadits, ilmu Fiqh dan akhlak. kalau bisa bahasa Arab lebih baik. baru deh bisa berdakwah dengan baik…

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